- As for the blog's name: -

I was @ Gustav Ericsson's sight, - Anzenkai, and I was looking at Nishijima Roshi’s calligraphies over there. Particularly there is one - "seki shin hen pen" - about which Gustav has earlier said in a blog post that it is Nishijima's favorite phrase from Master Dogen.

This seemed strange to me. It was not what I would expect Nishijima Roshi's favorite phrase to be. It seemed it could be some Rinzai master's favorite quote, - it seems to express continuous and constant sincerity, - but it did not seem to fit my view of the way Nishijima Roshi saw things.

So - consequently - I tried to think what would I expect his favorite quote to be. But all phrases I could think of did not seem to fit just what I might have had in mind.

So I tried to come up with what I would see it as, - and what I have come up with - is - "this universe out here".

- And this seems to be the right name for this blog here too.

- Definitely.                                                 ________________________

The Eightfold Path according to Steiner

First - The title of this post is questionably humorous. You might see it either way.

Second, - in the last post, - I have left rather important or central matters or things untouched, - with the intention of avoiding repetition, as I knew they were to be dealt with here this time in this post.

I wouldn’t normally have left things as they were in the last post, - had it not been for this intended post the previous one would have been considerably longer.

I made no reference to where Steiner offers his instructions or to his relevant references regarding and explaining them.

As it is known - in the teaching of Yoga (- among others too of course) seven Chakras are mentioned.

- For some reason Steiner only mentions six: - The Sahasrara Chakra (- the top seventh one) is not mentioned.

Either way, - Steiner speaks of these six Chakras. He does not refer to them as “Chakras” though, but as “Lotus Flowers”. - This seems to be the term as it appears throughout his writings. (- and abundantly many lectures)

These seem to be clearly related to different aspects of human mentality and of one’s personality.

- Each to a different facet of a person’s being.

While with regard to each lotus flower, - (I will (generally) use here the term as Steiner is using it) each of its petals has to do with a different property of one’s “nature”, - so to speak, - that is.

Steiner makes clear by fostering such a property one can shape the matching petal which seems to be responsible for it.

[- responsible for a certain degree, - at least]

- Particularly, - Steiner makes clear that the function of each of the eight limbs of the Eightfold Path set forth by Gautama Buddha over 2,000 years ago, is to shape, - correspondingly, - each of eight of the sixteen petals of the fifth Chakra, (- related to space, - as I seem to recall from years ago[- i -]) which Steiner refers to as the “sixteen-petalled lotus”.

(- every second petal it seems, - Steiner makes some reference to this, but I will not)

- The principle may be somewhat similar to that of cultivating muscles, - one may exercise a certain action in order to bring life and order to a certain organ of his body, - which then, - when strengthened, - enables the proper and healthy functioning of exactly-the-same-action having brought forth its consequent development.

- Though of course it is different. - The outcome here is a learning of the relevant organs of your being, - and true learning - by its very nature - is irreversible.

- While muscles which merely receive nutrition and priority-within-bodily-functioning generally return to their previous state with the cease of practice.

Consequently Steiner gives the following guidance for eight lines of conduct which are to contribute, - as referred to above, - to the proper development of the relevant lotus flower of sixteen petals: -

(- the third line of which is of course the one referred to in the last post)

The first is the way in which ideas and conceptions are acquired. In this respect people usually allow themselves to be led by chance alone. They see or hear one thing or another and form their ideas accordingly. As long as this is the case the sixteen petals of the lotus flower remain ineffective. It is only when the student begins to take his self-education in hand, in this respect, that the petals become effective. His ideas and conceptions must be guarded; each single idea should acquire significance for him; he should see in it a definite message instructing him concerning the things of the outer world, and he should derive no satisfaction from ideas devoid of such significance. He must govern his mental life so that it becomes a true mirror of the outer world, and direct his effort to the exclusion of incorrect ideas from his soul.

The second of these functions is concerned with the control of resolutions. The student must not resolve upon even the most trifling act without well-founded and thorough consideration. Thoughtless and meaningless actions should be foreign to his nature. He should have well-considered grounds for everything he does, and abstain from everything to which no significant motive urges him.

The third function concerns speech. The student should utter no word that is devoid of sense and meaning; all talking for the sake of talking draws him away from his path. He must avoid the usual kind of conversation, with its promiscuous discussion of indiscriminately varied topics. This does not imply his preclusion from intercourse with his fellows. It is precisely in such intercourse that his conversation should develop to significance. He is ready to converse with everyone, but he does so thoughtfully and with thorough deliberation. He never speaks without grounds for what he says. He seeks to use neither too many nor too few words.

The fourth is the regulation of outward action. The student tries to adjust his actions in such a way that they harmonize with the actions of his fellow-men and with the events in his environment. He refrains from actions which are disturbing to others and in conflict with his surroundings. He seeks to adjust his actions so that they combine harmoniously with his surroundings and with his position in life. When an external motive causes him to act he considers how he can best respond. When the impulse proceeds from himself he weighs with minute care the effects of his activity.

The fifth function includes the management of the whole of life. The student endeavors to live in conformity with both nature and spirit. Never overhasty, he is also never indolent. Excessive activity and laziness are equally alien to him. He looks upon life as a means for work and disposes it accordingly. He regulates his habits and the care of his health in such a way that a harmonious whole is the outcome.

The sixth is concerned with human endeavor. The student tests his capacities and proficiency, and conducts himself in the light of such self-knowledge. He attempts nothing beyond his powers, yet seems to omit nothing within their scope. On the other hand, he sets himself aims that have to do with the ideals and the great duties of a human being. He does not mechanically regard himself as a wheel in the vast machinery of mankind but seeks to comprehend the tasks of his life, and to look out beyond the limit of the daily and trivial. He endeavors to fulfill his obligations ever better and more perfectly.

The seventh deals with the effort to learn as much from life as possible. Nothing passes before the student without giving him occasion to accumulate experience which is of value to him for life. If he has performed anything wrongly or imperfectly, he lets this be an incentive for meeting the same contingency later on rightly and perfectly. When others act he observes them with the same end in view. He tries to gather a rich store of experience, ever returning to it for counsel; nor indeed will he ever do anything without looking back on experiences from which he can derive help in his decisions and affairs.

Finally, the eighth is as follows: The student must, from time to time, glance introspectively into himself, sink back into himself, take counsel with himself, form and test the fundamental principles of his life, run over in his thoughts the sum total of his knowledge, weigh his duties, and reflect upon the content and aim of life.”.

- First, - this presentation seems to place things in a reasonable order. - I am far from being versed in the matter, but it seems that the Buddha, - Gautama Sakyamuni, - as with other matters, - has presented things in a manner suitable for the circumstances and conditions having occurred at the time of his teaching.

Such presentation surly would not have been that beneficial for the Indian people living in that distant past. Relating to it was beyond the capabilities of the common and the-majority-of-the-population then, - and perhaps particularly at that region - India, - too.

- First related to is acquirement of views, - second is the function of thought and decision-making, - which, - of course, - needs to rely upon the first in its working and for its functioning.

Next are right speech and right action, - which again of course necessarily follow the previous in the same way, while right speech can be viewed as a particular partial case of right action.

- “Right livelihood” is apparently not right livelihood. - It seems the Buddha here again simplified his teaching for ease of understanding and application. - Apparently it is rather correct general life management as a whole, and not just the right choice of making a livelihood which may be a significant part of it. (- unless you are a monk, - that is, - as it seems one might naturally assume)

- And it makes sense here too: - After the previous four such a general attitude toward one’s whole life would reasonably follow. The previous four may be necessary tools to be at hand arriving at this fifth component of the structured guidance. - Which may be seen perhaps as a larger scope “right action”, - relating to one’s life as a whole rather than to specific actions within it.

- The order seems here to somewhat change. - Rather than one component relying on its previous it seems now the order is reversed: - For the purpose of properly actualizing the fifth element one would need to be familiar with his abilities. - This is where “right effort”, - or - “endeavor” - as Steiner seems to have better put it, - comes in. - It is necessary to know your capabilities and incapabilities and act accordingly.

Then the seventh would follow in a similar way: - That which is known as “right mind” is apparently about absorbing as much from life as possible.

- Again, - apparently, - in this context, - mainly for the purpose of the actualization of its previous among the eight listed particles, - (of the Buddha’s way) for which it is necessary.

The eighth seems to me rather like a substitute for Zazen.

(- I here meanZazenmainly as just sitting, - as practiced in the renowned house of Master Dogen. - This isn’t in any way intended as criticism of koan-Zazen as practiced in the no-less-renowned house of Master Rinzai, or elsewhere in general. - But it doesn’t seem the eighth limb of the eightfold path, - as it is, - or as it may be understood as attempted to be described here, - as a reflection or an outcome of the structure of [here a certain element of] the human body, - (- or the human being) would equally correspond to koan-Zazen as it would to the Shikantaza. - I am less confident, - or clear, - as for the Susokan, also practiced in the house of Master Rinzai.
- As for the way meditation was practiced since Gautama Buddha and up to Master Prajnatara in India, - or in other sects and lineages, - I am quite ignorant, - and so I could not comment here.)

- Anyone practicing Zazen regularly, - as it seems to me, - needs not be concerned about the last part of the instructions as described by Steiner here above. (- Referring to “Zazen”, - that is, - as noted just here above in the last parentheses)

- That is not to say if one naturally comes to acting accordingly, - as a result of sitting, - [- Zazen, - of course, - i.e.] or whichever other true practice or practices, - he ought to avoid it. - Of course not, and definitely not.
I might be a little confusing at this point, - but I suppose this is just the situation. - As it is, - either way.

- It seems the eight links should be viewed in a circle. This is also the form of the Chakra. - It is circular.
- The 16 petals are of course arranged in a circle.

- Btw.

- That is to say, - having gone through the eight - the last and eighth element among them, - (- whichever way it is viewed) again contributes to the proper establishment of right views. - Hereby closing a circle.

Also the significance of the first or early links in the chain is noticed and apprehended as a result of the understanding of, - and proper accordance with, - its ending.

- By which of course their actual employment is deepened and rooted in one’s developing spirit and habitual manners - which accordance with the hidden capillaries of the complex reality ever gradually increases.

Actually, - during the writing of this post, - I am getting the impression that it would be more reasonable to start with the fifth: -

First, - it would be reasonable for a person to want to plan his life management. For this purpose, - it is necessary for him to be familiar with his abilities and inabilities, - (I am somewhat repeating myself here) in order to try and do his best throughout his planed life, while also being aware of what would not be realistic to attempt.

For this purpose one is to increase his acquaintance with life, - through “right mind”.

For this (- this here might too be an answer to Kodo Sawaki Roshi’s well known saying: - “Zazen is good for nothing”) Zazen is an unmatched tool - it seems.

Out of Zazen, - right views are born, and you might say at this point is the birth of the Buddha-Dharma. (- As a world view or taught teaching, - that is. - I will refer to this differently in just a few paragraphs. It is definitely not a contradiction. - It is just using the same expression in somewhat of different ways.)

Correct Decision Making follows from a correct vision of existence.

And next follows - of course, - correct and true application of the above in every moment, - “right action”; - naturally preceded by right speech.

- Right action being last is also fully in accord with a thought I once had: - “Right action is the Buddha-Dharma”. - It is just the full purpose of every religion, or path, - to the extent such exists - if it does. - Given the reference I made to the matter in my second post here at this blog, - you might say all the rest exists for its sake.

- If Master Dogen sees Zazen as everything, or if he refers to it in this manner, - it is just because he sees Zazen as right action as well. - Otherwise it wouldn’t be possible.

- Though I am unsure things are just that way with regard to that still, - either way.
- Not 100% that is. - I am certainly not a person who would be looking for a reason to doubt Master Dogen, - but Jesus never taught Zazen.
- There has to be a reason to it. - It could not be otherwise.

- After that, - again, - in order to act correctly - particularly at each and every moment - one would naturally want to manage his life and plan it accordingly.

- Which again closes the circle.

- Though more reasonably at this order, - as it quite lucidly seems to me at least.

Having gone this far throughout this post, it now draws me to a matter which deserves a post in itself.

- A whole one that is of course.

- However I will relate to it here as it naturally follows: -

Buddhism was initiated, - began, - on this planet under our feet on which we live here in the physical plane, - as the prince Gautama Sakyamuni saw the morning star, thereby attaining his Buddhahood - and starting a true revolution - changing a considerable part of the human culture present on the face of this planet aforementioned.

- After which it [- i.e. Buddhism] has been continued through 27 generations, from Sakyamuni Buddha up to Master Prajnatara, - still in India.

Then Master Bodhidharma journeyed on foot, introducing it to China. (- Not necessarily exclusively though, - of course.)

The school we know as “Zen” seem to have been shaped through six generations, - from Master Bodhidharma up to Master Daikan Eno.
(- Dajian Huineng)

Then - through Daikan’s successors - Ejo
(- Nanyue Huairang) and Gyoshi, - (- Qingyuan Xingsi) and through their lineages, - it spread through China.

Through the continuing lineages of Masters Rinzai
(- Linji Yixuan) and Dogen it reached Japan.

- Now, - or rather recently, - in the 20th century, - it has spread to the west.

- And still is spreading.

- Gautama Buddha in India has never emphasized meditation or relied up on it in his teaching in the way Bodhidharma focused on it in China. It was one element within the teaching among others.

The same situation of course still occurred through the 27 generations (above mentioned) prior to the lineage crossing - with Bodhidharma, - off to China. - And through other lineages and traditions, - both Mahayana and Theravada, - in India, and in other countries where Buddhism may have yet spread at the time.

- With Bodhidharma - in China - the situation changed.

- As for the reasoning given, - to the extent any was, - it seems it would be irrelevant here. - It would have mainly been intended at Buddhist monks living at the time. - Nothing of the sort of what I am intending to get to here in these words.

The changes introduced might have very well been a result of the changing time and the different culture. - Though the teaching of Bodhidharma never intended to be the only teaching prevailing throughout China.

There were others.

- Both Buddhist and of other sources.

The alteration or revision in the teaching are undoubtedly in accord with the natural inherent character of the Chinese people, - not far remoted from that of the Japanese people as well, - of course.

- One significant point is that the amount of sitting is significant.
- If your sitting is scant you’d be a ridiculous “Zen” student.
- Fundamentally.

- The reason other elements [of the teaching] were abandoned is not viewing them as unuseful or unworthy.

Apart from being influenced by Chinese Taoism, - the situation is that according conduct - that is to say intentional, - with previous teachings as was the custom in India up to Bodhidharma, - would not be in accord with the objective of the attitude of the manner of continuous sitting in Zazen for long or numerous periods.

Intentionally attempting to act in accordance with teachings or instructions the spirit [- or core - which the spirit always is] of which is not yet understood, - as done earlier, - in India, - would be - very likely - hindrancial to the benefit attained through the increasing influence of Zazen spreading throughout our lives by the means of continuous and abundant sitting.

That is to say, - the necessary thinking, - yet intellectual at the beginning of one’s practice - would hinder one’s clarity of mind being so central in this path ran in the houses of Bodhidharma and his Dharma successors in various lineages.

- Besides, - behavior which is not natural, - not in accord with one’s (still) existing tendencies, - may in a way distort the harmony - which may be considered precious on this path as well.

- As the path of “Zen” has been spreading to America and Europe, - some seem to imagine themselves able to set new standards. And the shallower and scanter the understanding, - the freer the hand.

- I assume at first people were following their guides instructions. - I am not really familiar with the situation, or the scene, either in America or in Europe. - Not even here in Israel, - to a great deal, - actually.

However, - as I understand many today would “suffice” with a rather limited [meditation] sitting quantity or schedule.

- One important point at this point, - as much sitting as you can reasonably afford to enable within your life scheme, - is not necessarily as much as would be reasonably necessary for any worthwhile practice.

- Not in the least.

- There is no such relationship, - fundamentally. - Though many seem to, - quite thoughtlessly, - imagine otherwise.

- Not to speak of a situation in which one is simply insincere, - unwilling to reasonably dedicate what he practically could, - deceiving himself accordingly as his abilities permit.

- Please note: - If you put 1$ in your bank account once a day for 10 days, it is the same as if you put ½$ every day for 20 days; - but if you want to grow a tree, - assuming it needs a certain amount of water, and air, and sunlight, - if you only allow it 50% of the water it needs, and 50% of the air, and 25% of the sunlight, - you could hardly expect the results to be promising.

- The same situation occurs if you put an engine in a car with only half the necessary power. - It might move it at all, or it might not.
- Either way, - no one is going to enjoy the ride.

Part of what I said so far may be somewhat unnecessary for [the purpose of] my initial point I am aiming at, - here within this post-within-a-post.

- However, - the situation is, - that many - it seems - in the occident - who consider themselves to be students of “Zen”, - do not sit more than Buddhists would in India prior to the birth of the “Zen” branch of the Buddhist way.

That is to say, - the reasons for abandoning that which Master Bodhidharma and succeeding patriarchs chose to omit from the path they instruct, - may no longer be relevant.

For some at least.

And not necessarily a minority.

- While of course I am referring to the occident, - to the new Buddhist practitioners there, - those of them intending to trod the “Zen” path, - partly at least - as they view it; - not to the situation in the countries from which Buddhism has arrived in the west.

- All that I am saying, [- here] fundamentally, - has nothing to do with them.

I am not saying we should return to the situation as it existed in India, or as it is [or was] in any other Buddhist (or non-Buddhist) branch or stream - in any other [eastern] country.

But it seems the situation is to be reconsidered. And part of the elements excluded might better be again put into use.

- This might even be essential.

I don’t mean practitioners should pick up whatever by themselves, - of course. This has to do with whoever is instructing them. - But it seems those who run the framework - or some of them, - are to be more thoughtful. - They should be able to clearly see the benefit the practice they offer or prescribe would bring, - or might bring, - or else - they’d better consult someone who does.

One example might of course be the Eightfold Path discussed in this post.

I originally intended to allow myself the liberty of rewriting Steiner’s instructions quoted here. - As I did in the last post with the third part of it.

But after rearranging the order, - which I only thought of - unintentionally - during the writing of the post, - I changed my mind.

- Still a few remarks would be necessary: -

Generally speaking, - a “Zen” student would, - or perhaps - rather - should, - be more gentle upon himself than may be quite likely implied in Steiner’s words. - The path Steiner is indicating is not the same path, - it is different. - It relies upon such instructions as exampled in Steiner’s long quote brought above as quite a fundamental component of its structure.

- For a “Zen” student it might be much more valuable, - in my view, - to at first notice the significance of the regarding matter, - or matters, - as for his conduct to become a rather harmonious and quite natural outcome of this inner understanding.

- Which of course could not mean, - or imply, - a quick process.

- Here also the rearrangement of the order of the lines of behavior within one’s life would be significant, - particularly:

- Zazen being the fourth rather than the last - that is - as a result of the meaning of the following observed-lanes-of-conduct is clarified and deepened.
(- slowly-but-naturally gradually inscribed within one’s natural understanding and tendencies)

I somewhat changed some of them [- i.e. - Steiner’s quoted words, - at the heart of this post] here, - but this is very close to the original. (- If you do check the link, - please note it is quite old.) - Had I tried to rewrite them again today it would have been quite further different, - perhaps even further than my rewriting (of “right speech”) in the last post. - Particularly since I would begin with “right livelihood”, (- which apparently should today rather be right-life-management, - which of course does include the correct choice of making a living, - assuming one makes one at all, - as a rather central part of it, - but does not limit itself to it solely) and not with the accumulation of right views and their relevant filtering, - normally taken to be the first in the wheel.

- Also I don’t very much like Steiner’s attitude in what he refers to as “the regulation of outward action”, - the fourth among the instructional directions as he lists them. - His words are generally not literally incorrect, - I don’t oppose them, - mainly - that way. - However he seems to focus on being harmonious in a way that is not inspiring or uplifting, - so to speak. - He somewhat makes up for it in the next two instructions which follow. - But generally the attitude seems to be merely regarded with not being obstructive or distractive. - This seems to me to be what might be called a rather “small” attitude. - It is, or would be, in accord with one’s abilities at first, - but later on it might be questionably appropriate.

- The meaning of harmony - though not literally, - might become altogether different: - In a way that it would or might (sometimes) drive one into action rather than just keep him from being a disturbance in the simplest sense.

- So, - as I referred to in the beginning, - Steiner’s words are not necessarily literally wrong, - quite the other way around, - but could easily be misinterpreted, - to the extent of creating a wrong or even unfortunate atmosphere.

- So far for this point.

- Last, - I would want to refer to what might be the main point which drew me to the writing of this post here.

- And the previous one, - possibly.

Steiner’s attitude is not anachronistic. - I am not at all certain this could be rightly said of every interpretation of the Eightfold Path as a set of instructions you could come across elsewhere within various attempts to expound the Buddha’s teaching.

- The attitude he is taking does seem most appropriate for the times we live in. - Though it has been over a hundred years since the writing of his book, the distance does not seem significant. - As one might actually expect, - we have not changed that much since.

It seems to me the presentation put forth by him could generally be the correct way to view the Eightfold Path these days, - which I imagine is quite different than common directions one might come across today.

- Still with the relevant reluctances (- and corrections, - possibly) expressed earlier.

- Else than this, - study of this kind of teaching, - where it might involve enumerated lists of items - perhaps more typical to Theravada Buddhism than to the school of Mahayana, - should today, - in my view - be carried out relating as well to the correlating occult elements of the human body. - As referred to at the beginning of my post with regard to the Eightfold Path, - and as Steiner makes clear in his book, - where I read it.

I am referring to such teachings as Dogen refers to in Shobogenzo Sanjushichi-Bon-Bodai-Bunpo. - A chapter I never read in full, - (- like many others, actually, - you might find it funny but I don’t read much, and your language - native English speakers - is tiring, - for foreigners such as myself) where Dogen relates to the Eightfold Path as well. (at its end)
(- Just since I mentioned it, - what Dogen is saying there is altogether irrelevant to what I was saying here.)

- This kind of listing, - it seems quite clearly, - is related to occult elements, and generally - it seems, - based upon them.

- Such knowledge is obviously not irrelevant to such matters, - and given the development and refinement - since ancient times - of the human “mind”, - or what it might represent, - it seems in quite a solid way that now at the times we are living it would be right to include such study in the studies of such matters.

Familiarity with this understanding (as introduced by Steiner in his own teaching, - which is not Buddhist) would necessarily be a part of appropriate understanding of these Buddhist (- or not necessarily Buddhist) teachings at these times in the 21st century in which we live. (- Assuming they are taught at all. - I am not here referring to the question of whether one should engage in such studies in the first place. - But if these teachings do take place, - then my words apply as I am bringing them here.)

- I don’t think one who is not acquainted with the matter, - with regard to any such particular teaching, - could reasonably claim to thoroughly understand it and be appropriately acquainted with it as a teaching of the path to which it relates.

- The occult is part of the reality which surrounds us.

- Understanding it [- the reality] does not exclude it. (- The occult.)

And this is no doubt true of religious and spiritual teachings as well.

- Though many of those who are supposed to be teaching Buddhism would deny what they are to know the truth of, - if they are to be considered worthy of guiding men and women in the path they see themselves as leaders in.

- However, - I will not go further about that.

My last point turned out to be two: - The (possibly) main one mentioned above, - that is. - Which brings my post to the end.

- It’s been a lot of work writing it.

- I don’t suppose there will be any such long post in the near future.


Ran K. said...

[- i -] - The order is, as I recall: - [- or rather - perhaps, - somewhat rearrange it now] Earth, Water, Fire, Air, Space, Mind & Reality.

(I have not been able to find this around the net looking around for the purpose of this post)

Ran K. said...

A few points I thought of after writing the post: -

The 7th, - (- according to the usual order - the common way) usually known as “right mind”, would actually (- fundamentally, - that is) be “right absorbance”.

- That is: - The purpose of maintaining or having the “right mind” would be right absorbance. - This is what it is about; - right perception; - but “right absorbance” would do better at expressing it properly.

This also means this 7th element is somewhat polarized with the 3rd: - Right speech. - Right speech is about expressing oneself. - Out-going communication. - This is about the in-going data. - So they are somewhat [- as if] contrasted.

- Viewing the geometrical structure of the chakra, - (- we can not call it the “physical” structure since it does not reside in the physical plain, - and is not a part of it) the corresponding elements would - accordingly, - be on the opposite sides of its circle.

- As for the 8th: - The practice of Zazen, - or “right body”, - or “right balance”; - it seems to essentially be about right [self] maintenance.

- Which enables the right perception or absorbance about which the 7th apparently is.

- It would be completely wrong to imagine this maintenance to be about keeping your body fit or clean, as many might.

- Regardless of the value [or disvalue, - i.e.] of these in themselves, - this would be about the kind of maintenance foreign to secularity by its very nature.

It is about maintaining one’s rather inner and subtle “components”, - rough and intellectual humanity of today fundamentally might be able to supply no guidance with regard to.

- However, - still, - this seems to be the essence of this 8th element of the Eightfold path.

(- I would have preferred to use the “new” order I related to in the post, - but it seemed more reasonable to still refer to the common way of listing things here)